Wet Brain Syndrome
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder that results from vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency.1 It is colloquially referred to as the wet brain syndrome or wet brain disease as the majority of cases occur in patients suffering from alcohol use disorder.2
Signs and Symptoms of Wet Brain
There is disagreement among researchers about whether Wernicke and Korsakoff syndromes are separate disorders or different stages of the same disorder, in the case of alcoholics, popularly referred to as alcoholic wet brain.2
Statistics show that around 80-90% of patients with Wernicke syndrome develop Korsakoff syndrome.2 Wernicke syndrome is acute, while Korsakoff syndrome is chronic.4
Wernicke’s encephalopathy is a syndrome characterized by the following symptoms:5
- Eye abnormalities ophthalmoplegia and nystagmus, which affect eye movement, vision, balance, and coordination
- Mental confusion
- Problems controlling voluntary movements (ataxia)
These symptoms are a result of brain damage from alcohol abuse, in particular, the lower parts of the brain called the thalamus and hypothalamus.1 A person with wet brain from alcohol may not display all three symptoms.5
Wernicke’s encephalopathy is a life-threatening condition as confusion and loss of mental activity can lead to coma and death.1
This condition is also referred to as Korsakoff dementia or Korsakoff psychosis and is characterized by the following symptoms:1,3,5
- Retrograde and anterograde amnesia, which means that the patient not only cannot remember the past but cannot form new memories either
- Affective disturbance
- Hallucinations—seeing or hearing things that do not exist
- Confabulations—making up stories
Korsakoff’s syndrome is a life-threatening condition as well as it can cause permanent damage, which may lead to stupor and coma.5
Is Wernicke Korsakoff Syndrome Reversible?
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a potentially reversible condition.4,5 The factors that influence how successfully a case can be alleviated or reversed include the severity of the symptoms, how early treatment is started, and the quality of treatment received.4
However, improvements in memory function tend to be slow and often incomplete, and not all people achieve full recovery.4 If the patient delays treatment, they may be left with a variety of long-term effects and decrease their chances of alleviating or reversing the symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome.4
How Is Wet Brain Caused by Alcohol Abuse?
One of the effects of alcohol is that it reduces the absorption of vitamin B1 in the body, destroys the stores of this vitamin in the liver, and interferes with the activity of the enzyme that converts vitamin B1 into an active state. Although vitamin B1 is required by all organs, its deficiency is more detrimental to the nervous and cardiovascular systems than other systems.2
Even up to 80% of individuals with alcohol addiction experience B1 deficiency but only some of them will show signs of the wet brain.3 Statistics show that it occurs in 1-2% of the US population.2
How Is Wet Brain Treated?
While treatment cannot diminish alcohol brain damage that already exists, it can keep the condition under control and prevent its progress.3
Treatment with vitamin B1 can improve brain functions, especially if the person undergoes treatment in the early stages of the condition.3 As a result of this therapy, wet brain recovery is possible in terms of normalizing eye movement and muscle coordination, as well as eliminating confusion and delirium. However, this therapy cannot recover memory loss that occurs in the late stage of alcoholism wet brain disorder.1
Wet brain treatment can be effective only if the person stops their alcohol abuse and turns to a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet.1
How to Get Help for Alcohol Addiction
The first step in getting treatment is acknowledging that there is an issue with alcohol abuse. People are often unaware of the potentially severe and irreversible consequences of excessive drinking just because their condition is still not debilitating and they are still functional in spite of their alcohol addiction.6 It is often people from their environment who notice the issue and try to intervene with professional help, which sometimes may give a result.
However, this is very often insufficient and professional help is necessary in addressing addictions, especially if there are complications such as the wet brain syndrome. In such cases, the patient needs to undergo extensive examination and treatment.
What to Expect
There are cases when the person may experience severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms when they try to stop drinking. Detox programs at certified treatment facilities provide the necessary support and ensure that the patient can go through this process safely. After detox, treatment professionals work with patients on relapse prevention in order to maintain abstinence and continue leading a healthy lifestyle after they finish treatment. Treatment can take place in different settings, i.e. levels of care, depending on the severity of the condition and the treatment needs of the particular patient.7
While for some patients who need a high level of care intensive outpatient addiction treatment may be sufficient, others may need 24/7 inpatient care. There are also less intensive outpatient alcohol treatment options in situations when patients are stable and are able to visit the treatment facility for their regular treatment appointments.7
Who to Call
American Addiction Centers provides several drug and alcohol use disorder treatment options, including treatment in luxury facilities in a number of locations across the country. If you are looking for a way to help a loved one struggling with alcohol abuse, you can visit the website or call our helpline for information and advice on treatment programs, explanation of admission procedures. You can learn more about different types of insurance coverage and available payment options and information by contacting a toll-free alcohol helpline that is always available to treatment seekers.By calling this line, you can talk directly to admission navigators who are able to answer your questions and address all your concerns related to treatment. They can also verify your insurance coverage while you’re still on the phone.
Frequently Asked Questions